What is diabetes? Diabetes symptoms and ways to reduce diabetes!

  • March 15, 2024
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What is diabetes? (What is diabetes)

In simple words, the lack of insulin in the body is called diabetes. Its name in Bengali is polyuria. Because frequent urination is the main symptom of this disease. The full name of this disease is diabetes mellitus, but most people call it diabetes as abbreviated.

The human body has an organ called the Pancreas. The pancreas secretes many hormones, insulin is one of them. Insulin’s job is to regulate blood sugar levels. If insulin secretion is reduced or its effectiveness is reduced, blood sugar levels rise. This condition of the human body is called diabetes.

According to the information of the International Diabetes Federation (International Diabetes Federation), the number of patients suffering from diabetes in Bangladesh is 7.1 million. This number is likely to double by 2022. This diabetes can lead to stroke, heart attack, chronic kidney disease, neuropathy, visual impairment, etc. So all the facts about diabetes are like this –

What is diabetes and how many varieties are there?

Various reasons can cause diabetes. If they are not, let me tell you a little later, before that I don’t know if everyone can have diabetes. The answer is yes, anyone can get diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Secondary diabetes mellitus

What is type 1 diabetes? (What is type 1 diabetes):

Another name for this is “Insulin Dependent Diabetes” which usually affects people under the age of 30.

Maybe even children. There is no specific cause of type 1 diabetes. When the body’s “Immune” system mistakenly destroys the “Islets of Langerhans” (a cell in the pancreas that produces insulin) thinking it is a harmful substance or bacteria, insulin can no longer be produced. Because of this, the blood sugar level increases a lot

What is type 2 diabetes? (what is type 2 diabetes)

In this type of diabetes

Islets of Langerhans are not damaged and insulin secretion is not stopped. What happens is that the effectiveness of insulin decreases or is prevented from working, which is called “Relative Deficiency of Insulin” in medical science.

Sometimes the human body produces less insulin than it needs. A healthy person’s body secretes about 200 IU of insulin per day, if it is less then insulin cannot do its job properly. This condition is called type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more common in people aged 30 years and older.

What is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs due to various hormonal changes during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can be divided into Class A1 and Class A2. Class A1 gets better with a normal diet and regular exercise but Class A2 requires insulin.

What is Secondary Type Diabetes Mellitus?

Secondary type refers to diabetes caused by other causes. For example, if there is a disease of the pancreas, due to consumption of various drugs (Corticosteroid, Phenytoin), due to viral infection (Mumps, Rubella), etc., this type of diabetes can occur.

Why does Diabetes Occur?

Various reasons can cause diabetes. For example –

  • Obesity/overweight
  • High blood pressure
  • Hereditary
  • Unruly lifestyle
  • The risk of diabetes increases with age
  • Having low levels of HDL cholesterol
  • Smoking (Type 2)

What is type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in people under the age of 30, while type 2 diabetes occurs in people over the age of 45. Excess weight loss indicates type 1 diabetes. Some weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is hereditary but has no role in type 1.

Common symptoms of diabetes may be seen in type 1 but may not always be seen in type 2. In type 1, insulin must be taken, but in type 2, oral anti-diabetic drugs must be taken, when this does not work, insulin must also be taken.

Diabetes Measurement Rules

By now you may have doubted that I have diabetes. To end the doubts we need to know more about diabetes like – how diabetes is measured, what is the sugar level to understand diabetes, etc. First of all, whether or not you have diabetes depends on your blood sugar level.

Now what is blood sugar? As the name suggests, blood sugar means how much sugar is in your blood.

One of which is “Blood Sugar Level” you can do it yourself. To test for diabetes at home, you need a glucometer.

Through which you will get the results within seconds. A glucometer consists of a strip, a needle, and an electrical device that displays the digits.


Through the tip of the finger through a narrow hole, apply the few drops of blood that will come out on the strip and insert it into the glucometer. Within a few moments, you will see the blood sugar level showing on the screen.

How much diabetes is normal?

2 methods are used to find out the normal range. One is on an empty stomach and the other 2 hours after breakfast. Normal fasting sugar level is 6.1 – 7.0 mmol/L and normal fasting sugar level is 7.8 – 11.0 mmol/L. If it is more than this, it should be assumed that there is diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Diabetes has many symptoms. However, the symptoms that should be immediately consulted with a doctor are given here.

  • Frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Frequent thirst (polydipsia)
  • weight loss
  • Slow healing rate
  • to be angry
  • Starvation
  • Loss of attention
  • Getting tired too quickly
  • Blurred vision
  • Trouble ejaculating during sex (erectile dysfunction)

Ways to Reduce Diabetes

But it can be kept under control in various ways. We will now know how to reduce diabetes. Adequate carbohydrate intake: Since diabetes is an insulin problem. Insulin’s job is to keep sugar under control. Avoid sugary foods. A maximum of 50 grams of carbohydrates can be consumed daily which is not harmful to the body.

Fiber-rich foods:

Vegetables and fruits are fiber-rich foods. Foods high in fiber aid with blood sugar regulation.


Walk briskly for 30-40 minutes regularly. It is very important for diabetic patients. The more you walk, the more calories will be burned, then the body will break down excess glucose and produce energy.

Drinking Enough Water:

Drinking enough water can help maintain your blood sugar levels. An observational study found that people who drank more water had a lower risk of developing high blood sugar.

Consuming low glycemic foods: Low glycemic means foods that contain less sugar. Low glycemic foods include barley, yogurt, oats, beans, lentils, chickpeas, whole wheat pasta, vegetables, etc. (Low glycemic index food).

Regular intake of insulin: Those whose diabetes is very high and cannot be controlled only by oral medication, can keep their diabetes under control by taking regular insulin.

Non-Smoking: Diabetics already have multifactorial disease. So quit smoking. Another cause of type 2 diabetes is smoking.

Vitamin D intake: People who lack vitamin D in their body are at risk of diabetes. Adequate vitamin D reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 43%.

Treatment of Diabetes

Generally possible in two methods:

1. Lifestyle changes: Regular walking and exercise should be practiced. Alcohol and smoking should be abstained from.

2. Diabetes medicine: If diabetes is not completely controlled by diet and lifestyle changes, then “Oral anti-diabetic drug” means oral medicine and “Insulin” should be taken. People whose diabetes is under control only by taking oral anti-diabetic drugs do not need to take insulin.

Diabetic Food List

It is not recommended by doctors that no food can be eaten at all in diabetic patients. However, there are restrictions on certain foods. Keeping diabetes under control is not only possible, but very easy if you follow a healthy lifestyle such as following a regular diabetic meal plan, getting some exercise every day, and living a healthy lifestyle.

Foods to Eat More

  • Unsaturated fats such as nuts, olive oil, fish oil, etc.
  • Vegetables and fruits – mainly clean, fresh, and colorful vegetables are good.
  • Domestic fish and chicken in small quantities.
  • Good protein foods – eg, eggs, low-fat milk, yogurt, etc.
  • Foods to eat less
  • Foods cooked with extra spices
  • Fast food, baked goods, especially those containing sugar, sweets, desserts, chips, etc.
  • Processed pasta or rice
  • Processed fish or meat

Rice is a high-carbohydrate food. So the less rice you eat, the better. Instead of rice in the morning and at night, you can eat 1-2 rotis with vegetables, curd, and fruit. In the afternoon, if you want, you can have 1 cup of rice with lean fish or very little meat, along with vegetables.

What to Eat to Reduce Sugar?

  • Broccoli
  • Sea fish
  • Pumpkin and pumpkin seeds
  • Nuts and nut kinds of butter
  • Pour out
  • Beans and bean seeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Berries
  • Avocado fruit
  • Oats
  • Citrus fruits (tamarind, orange)
  • Antioxidant-rich foods (peanuts, green tea, pineapple, grapes)
  • Fenugreek
  • Gourd

Various studies have shown that the above foods help in reducing sugar levels. Diabetes can be treated naturally through these.

Due to all these reasons the death of diabetic patients is high

Diabetes is the mother of all diseases. Because of this, diabetic patients easily get Multiple Disease. Because diabetes weakens the body’s immune defense system. Following are the death rates of diabetic patients due to various diseases

  • Disease name mortality rate
  • Heart disease 70%
  • Kidney failure 10%
  • Cancer 10%
  • Infection 6%
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (presence of excess ketone bodies in the blood) 1%
  • Other 3%

Final Words:

Diabetes is a silent killer disease. What is diabetes through the above discussion? Its symptoms and ways to reduce diabetes are discussed in detail, as well as everything you need to know about diabetes. If any of you have these symptoms or if you already have diabetes, then share with our readers how much benefit you received from the above article.

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